- A person's own act, or acceptance of
facts, which preclude later claims to the contrary.
- An abbreviation of et alii, meaning
"and others," ordinarily used in lieu of listing all names of persons involved in a proceeding.
- An abbreviation for et sequentes, or et
sequentia, "and the following," ordinarily used in referring to a section of statutes.
- Testimony, records, documents, material
objects, or other things presented at a trial to prove the existence or nonexistence of a fact.
rule - A rule by which
evidence that was obtained illegally cannot be used in a criminal trial against a defendant. Also, in criminal
cases, a rule which prevents witnesses from observing each other testify or from discussing testimony during the
course of the proceedings.
witnesses - An order of the
court requiring all witnesses to remain outside the courtroom until each is called to testify, except the plaintiff
or defendant. The witnesses are ordered not to discuss their testimony with each other and may be held in contempt
if they violate the order.
jurisdiction - The matter can
only be filed in one court.
- A person assigned to carry out the
provisions of a will.
- A paper, document or other article
presented and offered into evidence in court during a trial or hearing to prove the facts of a
- By or for one party only. Ordinarily
courts are not allowed to engage in communications with one party only (ex parte communications). Both parties must
testimony - Testimony given in
relation to some scientific, technical or professional matter by experts, i.e., persons qualified to speak
authoritatively by reason of their special training, skill or familiarity with the subject.
facto - After the fact,
ordinarily used in reference to constitutional prohibition on ex post facto laws. For example, a person cannot be
punished for conduct committed before a criminal law was enacted.
expungement - A court order allowing the destruction or sealing
of records of minors or adults, after the passage of a specified period of time or when the person reaches a
specified age and has not committed another offense.