facie - Literally, "on its
face." A fact presumed to be true unless disproved by some other evidence. In a criminal case, when the prosecution
rests, the state's case is said to be prima facie, if the evidence so far introduced is sufficient to
communications - Confidential
communications to certain persons that are protected by law against any disclosure, including forced disclosure in
legal proceedings. Communications between lawyer and client, physician and patient, psychotherapist and patient,
priest, minister or rabbi and penitent are typically privileged.
cause - A judicial finding
that there exists reasonable grounds for belief that a person should be arrested or searched.
- The process of proving the validity of
- A sentence releasing a convicted
criminal into the community or a treatment facility under the supervision of a probation officer, requiring
compliance with certain conditions. If the conditions are not met, the court orders an "Order to Show Cause"
hearing as to why probation should not be revoked and the sentence imposed.
- For himself; in his own behalf. One who
does not retain a lawyer and appears for himself in court.
prosecutor - The name of the public officer who is appointed in
each county to conduct criminal prosecutions on behalf of the state or people.
custody - In child abuse and
neglect cases, the emergency removal of child from his home when the child would be in imminent danger if allowed
to remain with the parent(s) or custodian(s).
supervision - A court order
following a judgment on the ground of neglect or abuse, whereby the child is permitted to remain in his home, and
supervision and assistance to correct the neglect or abuse is provided by the probation department or other agency
designated by the court.
cause - In a civil tort action
such as a medical malpractice suit, the plaintiff must show that an act or omission of the defendant was a
proximate cause of the plaintiff's injury or loss. Similarly, in a criminal action, the state must prove beyond a
reasonable doubt that the defendant's action was the direct cause of the crime.
defender - Lawyers regularly
employed by the government to represent people accused of crimes who cannot afford to hire their own. The term may
also be used to refer to a private firm receiving public money to defend indigent criminal